______ Third One Homo Grossmont College The Ardip

______ Third One Homo Grossmont College The Ardip

______ Third One Homo Grossmont College The Ardip

hello so that the first discussion

Discussion Board Hominins in the news

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One of the main characteristics that defines the hominin tribe are their bipedal tendencies. However, as you have noted in the readingd for this week’s assignment, not all hominins had the same bipedal capabilities. Early hominins can be defined as being at various stages of transitioning into bipedalism while much later forms are effective bipedal runners.

As new information is discovered our understanding of hominin evolution changes. For this discussion board you will have to look for new hominin related discoveries that have made the news.

I would like you to look for a news story about hominins. Make sure that the news story on hominins covers the following time frame 6 million to 1 million.

  1. Give a brief summary of what you read. In one short paragraph tell the class what the news was about. Include the following points.
    1. Name the species in question.
    2. Where was found.
    3. Tell me why it made the news.
  2. Make sure you cite your information.

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second one

Introduction: Mid to Late Pleistocene Homo Discussion Board

For years we have been able to analyze the fossils of extinct humans like those of Neanderthals. Their bones gave us clues to how they looked, how they lived, and how they might be related to us. In the last few years, we have been able to get a better view into these extinct species and their relationship to our species. Thanks to next generation genomic sequencing technologies, we have been able to obtain genetic data on Neanderthals, Denisovans and others that have allowed us to make direct comparisons between our species and theirs. In addition, we have been able to observe the presence of DNA from these extinct species within our own genomes which tell us that we had kids with these now extinct humans.

Comparing Neanderthal DNA to ourselves, we find that we share 99.5 percent of our DNA with them. Which means that we and Neanderthals were separated from each other for more than 500,000 years. This also means that we were genetically similar enough to be able to have offspring with each other. We see evidence of this genetic introgression, or exchange of genes, between us and Neanderthals when we look at our DNA. Interestingly, if we obtain one thousand DNA samples from our college students, we estimate that we would be able to extract at least 20% of the Neanderthal genome from them. This means that 20% of our collective nucleotide sequences are shared with Neanderthals but this doesn’t mean that 20% of our genes are Neanderthal specific genes. Of the twenty-one thousand genes that Neanderthals had, only a few dozen of their genes survive in our species today. The same holds true for Denisovans. What is more interesting is that older versions of ourselves have a tendency to have higher levels of DNA from extinct humans compared to ourselves. In other words, over the course of thousands of years we have been slowly weeding out the DNA of the other humans from our genome in favor of our genes.

One basic question that we might like to ask is why have we been losing Neanderthal and Denisovan genes over time? Also, why do we still have a significant amount of DNA segments that don’t seem to be going anywhere? The answer to this has to do with selection.

The answer to the first part of the question has to do with the fact that we were not fully genetically compatible with the other human species to begin with. Basically, to have had Neanderthal or Denisovan genes in the past meant that an individual’s level of fitness was decreased. In other words, their ability to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation was reduced.

The answer to the second question has to do with the fact that Neanderthal and Denisovan genes that remain within us have been selected for since they confer an advantage to our species.

What you are doing

Your task for this week is to look for information about one Neanderthal or Denisovan genetic variant that have survived within our species and to research their adaptive advantage.

What you have to do for points

In your post, discuss ONE Neanderthal or Denisovan gene variant that is currently found within our species.

    1. Tell us about only one gene that we inherited from Neanderthals or Denisovans. Make sure you mention its name and what species it came from.
    2. Explain in your own words how your chosen Neanderthal or Denisovan gene has enhanced our species fitness. Make sure you give an informed opinion that is grounded in your research.
    3. You will have to respond to one other student posts.
    4. Make sure you cite your work.

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Third one

Homo sapiens Behavior

Before 70,000 years ago there were a number of human species in existence. By around 35,000 years ago we were the last human species. The big question is, why did our species survive and not the other humans. What might have given us the edge? One of the biggest differences between ourselves and the other human species has to do with the cultural material that has been left behind in the archaeological record. The most characteristic elements that makes Homo sapiens artifacts different from other species has to do with their symbolic nature and the size of their sites.

From their archaeological sites, it possible to see that Homo sapiens lived in larger groups compared to Neanderthals, Denisovans or Homo floresiensis. In fact, its possible to say that our species is the only Human species that has been able to live in a large group. The big question then becomes, what allowed us to be able to live in large groups in the first place… especially because it requires cooperation with kin and with friends.

The other thing that we see is that our archaeological record becomes filled with cultural artifact that are not just functional but are also abstract in nature. For example, in the archaeological record we see that all humans were creating stone blades. What’s different about Homo sapiens is that we are not just creating stone blades like the other humans, rather we begin to decorate our stone blades with pigments. Creating art and other symbolic creations don’t seem like a big deal unless you compare ourselves to other species and then realize that we are the only ones that consistently create abstract innovations.

What you are doing

Your task will be to explore the importance of language and prosocial behaviors in our evolution.

Before you begin your task make sure you do the following things

View both of the following TED talks so that you can answer the discussion questions.

https://www.ted.com/talks/yuval_noah_harari_what_e…

https://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_…

What you have to do for points

  1. According to Yuval Noah Harari, how does Homo sapiens cooperation differ from other social animals. How might it had given our species an advantage.
  2. Mark Pagel explains in his talk that language can allow us to build on the wisdom of others. How might this idea help us explain why Homo sapiens cultural innovations improved over time.
  3. Respond to another student post.
  4. Make sure you give citations.

and that’s the assignment

Beginning in the late Miocene and into the early Pliocene, upright walking tendencies began to develop among the hominin tribe. Upright walking tendencies slowly transformed into obligate bipedalism during the pliocene within the hominin lineage. This shift in locomotor strategy is notably marked by the gradual change in arm to leg ratio that we see when comparing early and later hominins. Early hominins have short legs and very long arms while later hominins have longer legs and short arms.

What you are doing.

Your task for this activity will be to compare and contrast the locomotor strategies of the following three hominin species: Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis and Homo erectus. You will accomplish this by answering the questions below

Use the following resource for Ardipithecus (Links to an external site.) (Click)

Use the following resource for Australopithecus (Links to an external site.) (Click)

Use the following resource for Homo erectus (Links to an external site.) (Click)

Before you begin make sure to view all unit material so that you can give me informed opinions.

What you are doing for points.

  1. Before you begin make sure view all relevant reading material so that you can give me informed opinions. 1. Which hominin had the best arboreal capabilities? Make sure you explain your answer by talking about only one feature that backs up your claim. Choose only one feature from the lower extremities (Legs and feet).2. Which hominin was the first to have feet that are effective for habitual bipedalism? Briefly explain what makes their feet more effective for bipedalism when compared to previous hominins.3. Which hominin had the best anatomy for running on two legs? Briefly explain how you would know and tell me about two specific skeletal features that suggest that your chosen species was running on two legs. 4. Lastly, I would like you to give a short summary of the notable evolutionary changes in locomotor strategy (the way that you move around) that you notice occur over time as seen from the perspective of Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis and Homo erectus.