Best Government Critical Thinking And Sociolog

Best Government Critical Thinking And Sociolog

Best Government Critical Thinking And Sociolog

Critical Thinking and Sociological Theories” Please respond to one (1) of the following:

  • Review the
    six (6) rules of critical thinking discussed on pages 8 and 9 in the
    textbook. Determine the rule that you believe to be the most challenging
    and provide a rationale for your response.To think critically, it is useful to follow six simple rules (adapted from Wade & Tavris, 1997):

    To
    think critically, it is useful to follow six simple rules (adapted from
    Wade & Tavris, 1997):
    Be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult. The belief
    in small government is a cherished U.S. ideal. But sociologists who
    study the role of government in modern society must be willing to ask
    whether there are circumstances under which more—not less—government is
    better. Government’s role in areas such as homeland security, education,
    and health care has grown in the past several years—what are the
    positive and negative aspects of this growth?
    Think logically and be clear. Logic and clarity require us to define
    concepts in a way that allows us to study them. “Big government” is a
    vague concept that must be made more precise and measurable before it
    provides for useful research. Are we speaking of federal, state, or
    local government, or all of these? Is “big” measured by the cost of
    government services, the number of agencies or offices within the
    government, the number of people working for it, or something else? What
    did Jefferson mean by “best,” and what would that “best” government
    look like? Who would have the power to define this notion in any case?
    Back up your arguments with evidence. Founding Father Thomas
    Jefferson is a formidable person to quote, but quoting him does not
    prove that smaller government is better in the 21st century. To find
    evidence, we need to seek out studies of contemporary societies to see
    whether there is a relationship between a population’s well-being and
    the size of government or the breadth of services it provides. Because
    studies may offer contradictory evidence, we also need to be able to
    assess the strengths and weaknesses of arguments on different sides of
    the issue.
    Think about the assumptions and biases—including your own—that
    underlie all studies. You may insist that government has a key role to
    play in modern society. On the other hand, you may believe with equal
    passion that big government is one root of the problems in the United
    States. Critical thinking, however, requires that we recognize our
    beliefs and biases. Otherwise we might unconsciously seek out only
    evidence that supports our argument, ignoring evidence to the contrary.
    Passion has a role to play in research: It can motivate us to devote
    long hours to studying an issue. But passion should not play a role when
    we are weighing evidence and drawing conclusions.
    Avoid anecdotal evidence. It is tempting to draw a general
    conclusion from a single experience or anecdote, but that experience may
    illustrate the exception rather than the rule. For example, you may
    know someone who just yesterday received a letter mailed 2 years ago,
    but that is not evidence that the U.S. Postal Service is inefficient or
    does not fulfill its mandates. To determine whether this government
    agency is working well, you would have to study its entire mail delivery
    system and its record of work over time.
    Be willing to admit when you are wrong or uncertain about your
    results. Sometimes we expect to find support for an argument only to
    find that things are not so clear. For example, consider the position of
    a sociologist who advocates small government and learns that Japan and
    Singapore initially became economic powerhouses because their
    governments played leading roles in promoting growth of a sociologist
    who champions an expanded role for government but learns from the
    downturn of the 1990s in the Asian economies that some things can be
    better achieved by private enterprise. The answers we get are sometimes
    contradictory, and we learn from recognizing the error of our
    assumptions and beliefs as well.