Free Country Could Contain The Abuse Of Human Rig

Free Country Could Contain The Abuse Of Human Rig

Free Country Could Contain The Abuse Of Human Rig

The followings are the readings mentioned in the prompt section below. One is attached.

https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2004-jun-1…

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h….

https://www.fulltextarchive.com/page/The-Communist…

http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.8.vii.html

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24526/24526-pdf.pdf

Here is the assignment:

Introduction:

Create a proposal for a piece of original and meaningful research based upon the following research prompt. Please note that we are not writing a research paper. We are writing a research proposal.

Prompt:

Choose three of our readings from this semester as well as one recent global event of significance (no, it doesn’t have to be COVID-19). Conduct a comprehensive critical analysis using your 3 selected readings as well as at least 10 other sources, ultimately demonstrating how your 3 selected texts clarify or illuminate the recent event about which you are writing.

Requirements:

The proposal project should include the following 3 sections:

Introduction:

This section should be a 250 word (minimum) description of your proposed research topic, including your hypothesis. Why is your research important? How does it expand/extend current research? What do you suspect the outcome of your research to be?

Methodology:

This section will be brief, likely one page only (250 words, perhaps even less), and will detail your approach to this topic. What types of sources will you seek? Why is your approach the most appropriate way to go about your research?

Annotated works cited:

This will be a list of potential sources for your proposed research. The list should be at least 13 sources long. Your 3 selected texts will be among these 13 sources. In other words, you only need to find 10 additional sources, which need not all be from our periodical databases. For each works cited entry, you should include a brief paragraph (3+ sentences) summarizing the source and another paragraph (3+ sentences) explaining how you expect the source to be useful to your research.

This alternative assignment definitely entails a good deal of work, but I believe you will find it fun as well as a nice break from the usual drudgery of writing papers (although I enjoy writing papers).


And here is an example that we can use.

Example:

Proposal

Remnants of colonialism are present in every part of the world today. Societies such as Africa, India, and the United States, to name a few, were dominated by societies whose thoughts were driven by the certainty of what they believed to know. Their level of certainty was propelled by using their own culture as a standard of evaluating other cultures and people; this is known as ethnocentrism. These standards are often measured by the dominating country’s comparison of its own views versus another country or region’s economical, technological, and/ or social advancements. I believe that this is the heart of colonialism and its affects have become extremely detrimental in today’s post-colonial word. This proposal seeks to link social expectations and education implemented by European colonist to the direct impact colonial principles have had on language and one’s identity through language. I have decided to present these principles through the lens of the United States. My research further expands studies about the effects of colonialism in a post-colonial world. My primary focus is the assimilation that occurs because of colonial mentality. Its negative effects have forced millions to shed their language and culture to become part of a supposed superior culture. The importance of this research is to foster the significance of identity through Language. I hope that the outcome of my research sheds light on the power culture has in developing and creating the people we are. The language of our culture is key in sharing our principles and thus is essential in expressing ourselves. Hopeful with this, impacting nations can see the value of language and modify the education to a modification their belief to value all languages.

Methodology

My approach in seeking information for my proposal is by evaluating past colonial practices, how those practices have found their way into the present, and how some societies are protecting language. I have sought historical sources to help exemplify colonial practices, while encyclopedias sources define terminology that refers to colonialism. Scholarly journals and journal of psychology provide motives for colonialism and the correlations between language and identity. Finally, a podcast, a Star Trek episode, scholarly reviews, and literary works provide commentary on historical events, firsthand accounts, arguments opposing views that are similar to the colonial mentality, and emphasis on the importance of identity through language. I felt that this was an appropriate way to obtain research on this topic because history is a starting point. It has documented where we have been and where we are going as a civilization.

Annotated Works Cited

Bennett, Edward M. “Colonialism and Neocolonialism.” Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Ed. Richard Dean Burns, Alexander DeConde, and Fredrik Logevall. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. 285-292. U.S. History in Context. Web. 3 May 2016.

This article defines the key elements of colonialism and neocolonialism. The article defines the practices of the United States when they implemented power over foreign and domestic peoples. Social Darwinism propelled the idea of the nation’s expansion west. Many Englishman believed that to expand west was to fulfill the basic needs of nature. In addition, they believe that the expansion was a sign of the survival of the fittest, therefore it was necessary to travel west. With the expansion of west, missionaries also saw the chance to spread the word of God and possible salvation of many more souls. The U.S. began to colonize in the late 19th century. Thereafter, it began to remove itself from the business of colonialism because it did not feel that it was practicing the values that the country was founded on. However, Imperialism was less harmful to U.S. values. Thus, imperialism was imposed on the economies of foreign nations. For the Europeans, the new age of imperialism was less violent and by that time many native cultures were eliminated. Most importantly this era was marked by technological achievements, only to reinforce the notion of European superiority among Europeans and native people. Finally, post colonialism brought with it independent movements. However, many of these state would continue to be influence by the colonizing nations even after they left.

The terms colonialism and neocolonialism have been a topic of conversation in our in class discussions. The terms link back to the Ngugi’s and Laye’s text. There are occasions that we believe we know what something is and are wrong. So to avoid any doubt or possible confusion, I wanted to supply the reader with definitions of key terms. It is important that these terms are properly defined because they set an overall theme for the text that we have read. Colonialism has been extremely impactful for the countries that have fallen victim to it. This article provides for my research, along with the definitions of key terms, the motives for colonialism and imperialism. The article is not limited to the U.S., but includes Europe, their influence on the U.S. and their power in foreign countries. Many of the negative affect that are mention in the article can tie back to the experience of colonialism found in our literary text.

Carlin, Dan. “The American Peril.” Audio blog post. Hardcore History. N.p., 25 July 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2016.

The American Peril episode discusses America’s rise to power and its place in the world, in relation to other nations. In the late 18th century, the world’s powerful countries viewed the United States as a weak nation that would never develop into anything greater than it was. This was because the state of the nation was judged on its most recent struggle with itself, the Civil War. The War cast an ill shadow on their domestic policies; therefore, nations that were more powerful did not see America as capable of executing plans outside of the country. During the Civil War, the agricultural nation became more industrialized and urbanized, it experienced an increase of immigration and different religions. Americans became uneasy because they believed the nation’s traditions were being threatened. In addition to the increase of industrialization, application of the sciences began to “pervert the minds” of the higher thinker in society. Social Darwinism was used everywhere, even in areas it could not be applied. Pseudoscience became the foundation of reason because observations between whites and people of color seemed to infer that “white people have the most developed societies and darker people don’t.” The superiority of whites over color people because of inferred difference in their societies created this sense of responsibility to these communities that were under developed.

The American Peril episode is my more favorable source because Dan Carlin eloquently describes the American moral dilemma: a nation whose principles do not parallel its actions. There are so many elements within this podcast to choose from that could help with my proposal. The United States felt that it need to establish its values on other nations to rise to power like the power house nations did before it. The pseudoscience that was developed and then practiced in the 19th century created what America is today. The nation fled from an oppressive king only to turn around and do the same to people who did not look the same, speak the same, or practice the same religion as traditional Americans. It is this application of incorrect reasoning, which creates a sense of certainty, and a self-proclaimed responsibility for helping the uncivilized.

Edmonds, Penelope. “Unpacking Settler Colonialism’s Urban Strategies: Indigenous Peoples in Victoria, British Columbia, and the Transition to a Settler-Colonial City.” Urban History Review 38.2 (2010): 4,20,88. ProQuest. Web. 4 May 2016.

This article is an analytic observation of the direct implications that colonization has on immigrants of Canadian Aboriginal people: North American Indian, Metis or Inuit. Edmonds’ focus is on the lack of historical content of the experience of the Native people. He urges that colonial cities of the 19th century constructed Native people in certain ways. The article tries to prove the interlinking of colonists’ and Natives’ histories. The deconstruction of indigenous land and people is analyzed through the settling of land and how their presence creates a domino effect on the land, culture and people all the way into post-colonialism. As indigenous land became colonized into urbanized communities, the Indigenous people were expected to move with the literal expansion of settlements. With the rise of economic success, racism, and disrespect for the Aboriginal people increased as well.

Edmonds article is an analytical view on one particular region colonized by the British in the mid-19th century. Regardless of the region that colonialism took place, I believe there are shared methods or practices that were performed by all colonizing countries. What is nice about this article is that it brings the causes of colonialism closer to home. I think this article is a great example of displacement and the destruction and regulation of peoples within the North American region.

“Ethnocentrism.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 11-12. U.S. History in Context. Web. 1 May 2016.

This source provides the definition of ethnocentrism. It states that “ethnocentrism is a basic attitude expressing the belief that one’s own ethnic group or one’s own culture is superior to other ethnic groups or cultures, and that one’s cultural standards can be applied in a universal manner.” The sources also review the various causes of ethnocentrism, which can stem form stereotypes, and real life conflicts between groups of people. The source also details that higher educated people display lower levels of ethnocentrism; however, men are more willing to express it than women. Finally, this source also includes two main components to ethnocentrism: economic ethnocentrism and cultural ethnocentrism. The first, is based on the economic competition and the latter is related to one’s cultural norms and attitudes.

The definition and the causes of ethnocentrism is necessary for this proposal. It goes without saying that the definition of a term creates for better understanding of what is being spoken about. Especially for a topic such as this one, terminology sets guide lines for the overall topic in discussion. It is essential that ethnocentric be understood because it is fundamental to colonialism. This source is wonderful because it also discusses the causes of ethnocentrism, which can also be elaborated even further.

Hsin-Chun Tsai, Jenny. “Xenophobia, Ethnic Community, And Immigrant Youths’ Friendship Network Formation.” Adolescence 41.162 (2006): 285-298. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 5 May 2016.

The purpose of this paper is how immigrant youth rebuild their friendship networks. It documents the difficulties they face in the process of assimilation and the building of their social groups. The challenges that they face are dependent on their knowledge of English. The less they know the greater the separation from their peers they become. Youth immigrants face ridicule and embarrassment. Programs such as English as a Second Language perpetuate even further separation and make students of these programs prone to targets of discrimination.

Hsin-Chun’s article is valuable to my proposal because it discusses the sociological and psychological implication of assimilation. We can forget that there is an emotional response to the challenges of adapting to a culture so different from our own. The experience of these youth just prove the flaws in our opinions towards non-English speakers. It implies that there is little understanding or tolerance for those trying to fit in. I believe from this prospective, it humanizes immigrants in that at one point or another we all have struggled to fit.

James, Lawrence. “`The White Man’s Burden’? Imperial Wars In The 1890S.” History Today 42.8 (1992): 45. Religion and Philosophy Collection. Web. 4 May 2016.

James analyzes the mentality of colonialism in Africa and Asia. It is a thought process that is motivated by the idea of the white man’s burden. There may be slight difference in the motivations between the United States and Europe, but the burden of saving the uncivilized is the same. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States shared the self-confident, often self-congratulatory and always aggressive imperialism of the day. Unfortunately, colonialism is a serious violent events because of the opposition these countries faced. Often times the justifications to their violent uses of force was that “barbarous methods were the only ones that would make a lasting impression on barbarous minds”.

This article is exceptional in that it supports my definitions of imperialism, colonialism, and my source of Dan Carlin’s Hardcore History. The article elaborates on Dan Carlin’s notion of the white Americans belief system in the 17th-19th centuries. It was the burden of the white man, to rescue and educate the uncivilized indigenous peoples of American and the world. The article provides plenty of example of the other super power nations of the time exercising their powers of colonialization. It appears that colonialism is performed systematically, regardless of the country doing the colonizing. The same effect are also apparent on the native peoples of the colonized land. This source can be link back to the Ngũgĩ’s text, Decolonsing the Mind. He too experienced the deconstruction of his cultural through the colonial method of education.

Lange, Matthew, and Andrew Dawson. “Dividing and Ruling the World? A Statistical Test of the Effects of Colonialism on Postcolonial Civil Violence”. Social Forces 88.2 (2009): 785–817. Web…

Lange’s claim is that people, not just limited to scholars, are quick to jump to the conclusion that colonialism had a great impact on civil violence. His article attempts to compare both former colonies with regions that did not experience colonialism. This comparison could provide insight on whether colonialism can be said to be a general cause to civil violence. The question he proposes to answer is that non former colonies have higher cases of civil violence than non-colonies. To begin his investigation Lange will review literature highlights: constructing oppositional identities, institutionalizing an ethnic based division of labor, creating ethics based on hierarchies, introduction of foreign populations, imposing arbitrary political borders, promoting despotic forms of rule, institutionalizing ineffective states, and opening power vacuum at independence. To see whether these indicators function in affecting civil violence, a cross national analysis is done. Internal communal conflicts, political, rebellion, and civil war are variable to be considered. The results are that a history of colonialism promotes oppositional communal identities, communal division of labor, ethnic based stratification, animosity between indigenous and non- indigenous peoples. Colonialism or a degree of colonialism power is strongly related to communal violence.

I chose this case studying because I thought it would be important to state that the proper research must be done before stating a popular claim based on its already created negative or positive connotations. Lange’s case study is a reminder that no matter how opposed to an idea one is the proper analysis must be conducted. It is applicable to this proposal because it allows us to see the argument from both side as opposed the common consensus.

Lankford, Gene. “Immigration, Multiculturalism, And American Identity: A Critique Of Samuel Huntington.” Ciências Da Religião: História E Sociedade 12.1 (2014): 268-287. Religion and Philosophy Collection. Web. 1 May 2016.

Harvard professor Samuel Huntington claimed that American’s national identity was being threatened by immigration and multiculturalism. Gene Lankford critiques Huntington’s Angle-Protestant ideas. Huntington believed that immigrants primarily form Asian and Latin America were detrimental to America’s identity. His reasons: immigrants would have an impact on the economy, they would be a tax burden, there would become an overburdens in social institution, they would have an impact on the crime rate, and cause of disease. Huntington implied that civilization is fix and never changing. He praised Europe for being a “‘unique source’ of the ideas of ‘individual liberty, political democracy, the rule of law, and cultural freedom’”. Lankford argues that is not the case. Immigrants are resilient in that they have to accommodate to their new environment(s). This, at times, calls for creative transformations and adaptability so that stagnation and decline are avoided. Lankford adds that civilization is ever-changing; people and cultures are redefining themselves all the time. And where Huntington states that other nations are constant conflict, therefore and never contributing to American development; Lankford claims that historically there has always been a coexistence and cooperation with the United States.

I wanted to use this source to continue to exemplify the mentality of the white majority. Granted that not all of the white population believes claims such as Huntington’s, but many who do agree with him regarded him as creditable scholarly source. I find this to be problematic. With respect to his credentials, many of his claims remind me of the thought process of the colonist. Huntington claims superiority over immigrants from multiple cultures who come to the Untied State. No one can eradicate this mentality, but if we can show future generations identity is dependent on personal choice and their cultural back ground, perhaps there will be a transformation in our system of laws and education, so that we value cultures and their languages.

Lansford, Tom. “Imperialism, Cultural.” Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. Ed. Thomas Benjamin. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 572-576. U.S. History in Context. Web. 30 April 2016.

This encyclopedia source defines imperialism, documents imperial aspirations, briefly states the pros and cons, and provides a history of imperialism. “Cultural imperialism is the effort by powerful states to force their culture and societal systems upon subjugated, or less powerful, people.” The positive values were democracy and equal rights, however, with the spread of imperialism many cultures along with their customs, and languages were eliminated as well. With the spread of imperialism, Christianity was forcefully taught to the indigenous people of the dominated land. Of course, European countries and the United States profited more from the resources than the people who were colonized. Both regions made it so that their colonies would practice their political culture, thus keeping their colonies submissive.

The use of terms is an important part of research. The definition of terms used, clarifies for me what the topic of conversation is being discussed. Once there is a definition, I find that attaching an example to the term gives me further understanding. Terms are often used, but may not be understood. I wanted to make sure that I defined the terms that we had discussed in class. I think that if I provided a starting point for the readers they could better follow the direction of my research.

Laye, Camara and James Kirkup. The Radiance of the king.” New York: New York Review Books, 2011. Print.

Camara Laye’s The Radiance of the King is a text that is written in the depths of colonial Africa. It wonderfully documents the attitudes of both the colonist and the native people in an undisclosed African state. Laye’s description of Clarence is one of a character that encompasses colonialism in its purest form. Laye allows Clarence to be the unapologetic European colonist that he is which can be seen in his interactions with the natives. The reader finds Clarence in search of the king so that he can give him employment in order to pay of his acquired debt. Alongside side Clarence is an old beggar, and two mischievous boys who have come together to accompany him on his journey to find the king. Throughout his journey he questions his own thoughts and opinions of what he believed to be Africa. At the end of the story, the irony is that Clarence’s role is now reversed. He is no longer the superior being he thought he was, but now a humbled servant in the employment of the king.

Clarence thoughts, comments, and emotional responses to his surroundings are ethnocentric. This is to say that he uses his own culture as a standard of measure to evaluate other cultures and people. I believe that this is the heart of colonialism. These standards are often measured by the dominating country’s comparison of its own views versus another country or region’s economical, technological, and/ or social advancements. Clarence’s role is reversed from the certainty of a colonial mind set to finally understand a culture far from his own. This text is a huge asset to this proposal because it shows a man’s thoughts and opinions evolve into an understanding of a culture greater than his preconceived ideas. Rather, than believing in what we think we know to be certain, with opened minds we can learn from a new culture and its people and create better ways of succeeding as a community, or much larger, as a global society of knowledge and understanding.

Lock, Alexander. “MAGNA CARTA The Atlantic Crossing. (Cover Story).” History Today 65.7 (2015): 31-37. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 April 2016.

This is a cover stories that briefly describes the origins of the Magna Carta and its direct influence on the legal documents that were the foundation for the United States. Before the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights were ever written, the colonial states had to create their own laws. Many of the law that the colonist wrote came directly from the 1215 British charter, the Magna Carta. Clauses that referred to individual rights, law of the land, and due process were originally founded in the Magna Carta. The British charter immigrated into North America with the colonist. When the war for independence broke out, the colonist used the Magna Carta to protest the British king’s actions.

I wanted to use a historical source to create a foundation/ a point of reference to trace back possible reasons as to why the United States has such concrete values. Once I created a point of reference, I could branch out forward in time to see how the past had created negative implications for immigrants, their culture and their language. It was only after I listened to Dan Carlin’s Hardcore History: American Peril episode, did I understand the degree of European and English influence during the 17th and 18th centuries. Nations more power than the U.S. indirectly and directly inspired the creation of laws and national identity. As I mentioned in my citation of Carlin’s Hardcore History, for the United States to become a super power it need to emulate the characteristics of former colonial nations. It is worth noting that principles just mentioned also affected other countries as well.

McCafferty, Steven G. “Adolescent Second Language Literacy: Language-Culture, Literature, and Identity.” Reading Research and Instruction 41.3 (2002): 279-88. ProQuest. Web. 3 May 2016.

McCafferty claims that literary text produced in different languages is more beneficial to adolescents whose second language is English. This is because it is found that those who are immigrants are challenge by the change in their situation. Text that are targeted to adolescents can be beneficial to this group because their struggle of finding their self can be eased through text. This is important because these individuals must find a new tone to express who they are. It is during the process of assimilation that a foreign speaker notices how different their language sounds in comparison to English. Because the process of puberty can be difficult to maneuver, often time adolescent find solidarity in people and things that are similar to themselves. The by product, in terms of language, is the creation of words or their own language. This in turn creates a sense of alienation because of the difference between them and the rest of their peers. Self-worth develops when one becomes more proficient in the new language. Individuals begin to understand the usage of certain words and use those definitions as a new form of identification. The idea of introducing new text, in a foreign language, is also beneficial to those whose primary language is English. It introduces new forums for the use of dialogue to express themselves.

I knew from the beginning that I wanted to incorporate a psychological approach to this research. Language is the how we express ourselves to the world. Imagine having your voice silenced because you could not communicate and express yourself because no one could understand you or chose not to go out of their way to understand you. A person becomes invisible and their self-worth is question. This journal delves into the issues of self-worth, identity, and the struggle speakers of foreign languages face. I believe this journal can be further supported by Yosso’s text. McCafferty makes interesting points when explaining the problem with the United States’ teaching of language arts. The journal provides for possible solutions to changing the flawed education system, but, the author makes it clear that solutions would not come easily. I think this journal in particular encourages extended research on the ways we can change a linear system to includes foreign language in our schools and create an understanding in the importance of language in the American psyche.

Moghaddam, Fathali, and Donald M. Taylor. “The Warped Looking Glass: How Minorities Perceive Themselves, Believe They Are Perceived, And Are..” Canadian Ethnic Studies 26.2 (1994): 112. America: History and Life with Full Text. Web. 4 May 2016.

Moghaddam’s study is about the way minority groups believed they are perceived and are actually perceived by the majority group. He took 293 junior college students in Montreal and divided them into a majority group known as French Quebecers, and five immigrant groups know as European Francophones, Jews, Latin Americans, South-East Asians, and Haitians. Evidence supporting two hypotheses resulting in “cultural similarity” which was mostly viewed within the European Francophones being the most accepted and the minority being the least accepted. The second hypothesis was dependent on the vocabulary or labels that were used to refer to minority groups. Terms such as “immigrant” and “foreigner” imply less progress in assimilating to the Canadian culture than the term “Quebecer”. There are numerous factors as to why there are misperception in minorities. An increase on immigrants who choose little contact with each other is one factor; while a survey suggests that majority group’s preferences imply a hierarchy of acceptance. For instance, Western European are on the top of this scale while immigrants from Asian and Africa are lower. This means that minority groups are rank by their similarities to the majority group. The results did not prove anything different than what they had hypothesized.

I believe the results of this survey are similar, if not, exactly the same as colonialism. We see that there is a ranking dependent on the origins of the immigrants. Depending on the region they come from immigrants look unfavorably on other immigrant. European immigrants continue to carry an attitude of superiority over non-European foreigners. This belief of superiority may stem from the dominant, colonial, history of Europe. Again, this is an example of the psychology of superiority and it reinforce the other examples given about the certainty that dominant cultures believe to have.

Mouw, Ted, and Yu Xie. “Bilingualism and the Academic Achievement of First-and Second-Generation Asian Americans: Accommodation with Or without Assimilation?” American Sociological Review 64.2 (1999): 232-52. ProQuest. Web. 5 May 2016.

Mouw’s research is on first and second generation Asian-American student in 1988. He claimed that being bilingual has positive effects on academic achievement because knowing multiple languages stimulates cognitive development. Bilingualism is also a barrier to assimilation because students can revert back to speaking in their native tongue with their parents and their community. Mouw’s second view to the benefits of bilingualism is based on cultural perspectives. Overall studies have shown that there is better access to cultural perspectives because of their parents. Bilingualism ceases to be beneficial when the parents develop proficiency in English. Unfortunately, most immigrant children are quick to attain the English language, developing a preference for it and abandoning their native language. A rapid linguistic assimilation of immigrant children has the potential of losing the ability to communicate with their parents, therefore distancing themselves from their culture. When this occurs the parents encounter difficulties in monitoring their children’s behavior and academic achievements. Standardize testing results of the 1920s found a problem in measuring the intelligence of students who knew two languages. Researches believed that because they knew two languages it would hinder those students from progressing as rapidly as their English speaking peers. A 1922 study suggested that students did much better on standardized test when the test was taken in their native language. Mouw acknowledges that the Untied States is a homogenized society, but that it is quick to replace immigrants’ foreign language with English. Therefore, American does not support the maintenance of other languages other than its own.

Regrettably, the U.S. has not moved to far forward from the scientific research of the 1920s. The focus of Mouw’s article simply proves that the United States does not value the benefits of bilingualism. If the nation does not see the importance of different cultures and their languages, then it is up to the diverse communities to request form their schools the incorporation of foreign languages. It is easier said than done of course because many parents of these first or second generation American students might not yet be proficient in English to request such needs. In fact, many immigrants are willing to assimilate and, at times, leave their cultural identity behind because they are under the impression that they or their children will have a better chance of success. I believe this article, in addition to Hsin’s article provide a solution to the problem. School nurses, psychologist, counselors, and teachers are in a position to advocate awareness of the effects of racism and xenophobia. They too can speak of the challenges and ridicule children and adolescents face from the school system and their peers. Professionals need to be the advocates and supporters of language and cultural identity because they witness first hand the conditions of not having it.

Nario-Redmond, Michelle R., et al. “The Social And Personal Identities Scale: A Measure Of The Differential Importance Ascribed To Social And Personal Self-Categorizations.” Self & Identity 3.2 (2004): 143-175. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 May 2016.

This article deals with the importance of peoples’ personal identity and their place in relation to their social groups. There was a scale that was created to distinguish the relationship between the individual and the group. The scale measured the uniqueness of the individual away from the group and in turn the group was to rate the individual. At the end of the study the scale proved to be valid. The related identity measures depended on the identity specific categories. The study considered individuals’ personal lives and their social lives to be factor in defining an identity. However, this was key in creating a distinction between an individual’s identity in and out of a group setting. The differences between individuals as part of a group can also be determined by their vast social interest.

I would utilize this article to support my proposal that groups, or more specifically, individuals who part from their groups are assets to the communities beyond their group. An individual who breaks away from their group will inevitably bring their individual knowledge and skills, in addition to those traits developed with a group. This is simply another example of allowing different skill sets and knowledge to help further influence the community around them, especially these groups who come from a community were language is not that of the majority.

Reyes III, Reynaldo. ““Cheating” As Good Pedagogy: Bilingual Teachers Defying English-Only To Foster Student Achievement.” Multicultural Perspectives 10.4 (2008): 209-213. Academic mSearch Premier. Web. 5 May 2016.

Reyes’ article is on the benefit of incorporating Spanish in English classes. In the states of Arizona, California, and Texas, where there is a heavy Spanish speaking community, the districts and the schools prohibit the use of Spanish in classes so that the foreign language students are forced into the “rapid” learning of English. However, there has been an increase of bilingual teacher that literally “cheat” the system. Teachers use Spanish to discuss difficult concepts to Spanish speaking student, or they ask their students to explain their understanding of the material in their native tongue. These teachers have found that by incorporating Spanish, unknowingly to the schools and the districts, into their curriculum they having seen native Spanish speaking students excel in their lessons. The teachers understand that by implementing this type of teaching they are empowering English language learners (ELLs) with critical thinking skills, bilingual abilities, and respect for themselves and their culture. Unfortunately, many Americans do not see it this way. They believe that bilingualism threatens American identity. However, bilingual teachers are working to empower historically marginalized youth.

This article is the solution to the way minorities are marginalized in the American education system. In fact, it breaks colonial principles altogether. The article provided many studies on the successes of Spanish speaker in an English speaking education system. The evidence was clear that by incorporating the students’ native tongue in the lessons they are able to understand the concepts being taught in the class room. In addition to this method of teaching, students are indirectly being told that their language and their culture is nothing to be ashamed of. I can see the holes in this potential solution. It will be difficult, and in some case impossible, for every foreign language to be accommodated, but the fact is not every language can be catered to. The practice should not be to marginalize any student or diminish their language or culture because they are a minority to an English majority. The attempt should be to nurture and expand on the tool they already have.

Roddenberry, Gene, Joe Menosky, and Philip La Zebnik. “Darmak.” Star Trek: The Next Generation. 28 Sept. 1991. Television.

The fleet of the star ship Enterprise has made contact with a ship of the Tamarian race. Once the Tamarians are beamed onto the Enterprise’s screen, the Tamarian Captain, Dathon, begins to speak. Unfortunately, the crew of the Enterprise cannot understand what Captain Dathon is saying, and the Tamarians cannot understand Captain Picard. Frustrated by their failure to communicate Captain Dathon beams Captain Picard and himself to the planet bellow. As Picard’s crew scrambles to get him back unharmed they are cautious about the words they choose to communicate with the Tamarian crew. On the planet below, Dathon mistakes Picard’s word as a challenge to a duel. Picard quickly denies the fight and Tamarian Captain walks away. Back on the ship, the crew discovers that the Tamarians speak in metaphors, however they do not understand the origins of their metaphoric language, therefor, leaving them back on square one. As night falls, Picard finds himself alone again with Captain Dathon. Picard listens to him speak in hopes of picking up some word(s) that are familiar, but nothing come from it. The next day, both Captains find themselves in a battle with an invisible creature. But in the middle of the battle, the crew of the Enterprise begins to beam up Captain Picard. The Captain is left in a limbo between the ship and the planet. From his position he watches helplessly as Captain Dathon falls to the ground from his wounds. The Enterprise does not have enough power to fully beam Captain Picard up to the ship, so he is left behind on the planet. Both Captains have to spend another night on the planet. Picard begins to question Dathon on the construction of his language. Picard deduces, that three most common phrases that the Tamarians use, Darmok, Jalad, and Tanagra, come from the story of two warriors who met on the island of Tanagra. Capitan Picard realizes that the foundations of the Tamarian language are based on allegory; Captain Dathon sees that Picard finally understands but then succumbs to his wounds. The next day, Captain Picard is beamed up to his ship. He delivers the news of Dathon’s death to the Tamarian crew in their language and with that they solemnly part ways.

The Star Trek episode embodies the entire concept of the interaction between two foreign language speakers coming together and wanting to understand each other. Obviously, the real world is less forgiving than the TV show, but what is valuable here is the desire to understand and deconstruct the other’s language. The scene that really resonates with me, is when the crew is discussing their finding of the Tamarian language. A crew member uses the example of Romeo and Juliette. She implies that if she says “Juliette on the balcony” you and I would understand that the reference signifies love. The caveat is that one must already be familiar with the reference to understand its significance. This is similar to Ngũgĩ notion that a culture’s history and storytelling is imperative to a cultures language and identity. In this case, “Darmok and Jalad at Tanagra,” is mythology of the Tamarians. The episode makes for another great example of the construction of language and identity.

Scassa, Teresa. “Language, Culture, And The Courts: Bilingual Education In The United States.” Canadian Review Of American Studies 26.1 (1996): 31. America: History and Life with Full Text. Web. 2 May 2016.

This study legally analyzes, but does not criticize the debate around bilingual education and its relationship between language and national identity in the United States. To some educator, bilingualism is the process of foreign language speakers and the eventuality of the students catching up to English speakers in school. In other words, their first language is not implemented or a part of the process of learning. Other educators view bilingualism as a means to an end, the end result being learning to speak English and valuing or teaching student how to incorporate thir language as a tool to academic success. However, Scassa states that pluralist approach bilingualism and biculturalism as a valuable trait for the nation as a whole. The problem lies in that dominant groups remain the standard or are considered the norm in comparison to non-dominate groups. In the legal sense, we can see that there is a push in favor of assimilation than equal opportunity of non-dominant cultures.

This study is useful for my proposal because it further support the claim that assimilation is more desirable than accommodating to the needs of foreign language speakers or more importantly, value their cultural back ground. The United States, again, does not understand the value of multilingualism. It has created a linear form of education that functions on the averages of English speaking students across the U.S. instead of focusing on strong traits in their communities. This source is further supported by Yosso’s Critical Race Counterstories along the Chicano/ Chicana Educational Pipeline. Not that I entirely agree with Yosso, but minority students, such as Chicano/ Chicanas further support the claim of a flawed education system in the U.S. that gives no importance to the languages of non-English speakers. The result is that minority cultures are taught that they are less than their English speaking counter parts.

Steele, Shelby “White Guilt.” American Scholar 59.4 (1990): 497. Religion and Philosophy Collection. Web. 4 May 2016.

Shelby Steele’s article is about the evolution of shifted authority in the white community. This shift is in regards to the guilt that many in the white community began to experience in the 1960s. Steele suggest that it was a loss of authority that came as an obligation of the change in dominance, perhaps due to the black rights or black power movements. Whites were repenting from their indifference to human suppression. The guilt comes from the subjugation of an entire people. That said, Steele will admit that guilt is used to the blacks’ advantage and the black power movement evokes white guilt. The policies that changed seem to mimic white attitudes as well. These policies were created to avoid a nation within a nation, which only leads to further segregation. However, much of these policies did little to up lift blacks. The only way, it appeared for whites to redeem themselves were through the creation of special entitlements for the black community. Unfortunately, because there was little focus in creating a foundation of development, primarily through education, blacks, then and now, are unable to take advantage of these entitlements. Steele is insulted by the guilt that white people claim to experience because he sees guilt as a means to make one-self feel better. He goes as far as comparing this action as a sort of moral colonialism.

I believe that this article can be applied to the way minorities are treated in the United States. There are parallels between the black community and minorities, more specifically non-English speakers. I think there are entitlements that are given to minorities, but they have not been given the tools to obtain such advantages. This example is very similar to Yosso’s claim of the Chicano/Chicana experience in the education system. And similarly, Ngũgĩ educational experience in colonial Africa. Only one form of learning is encouraged and a student either keeps up or falls behind and their culture is the one to blame for their lack of understanding. Regrettably,Ngũgĩ, and his fellow countrymen will never receive an apology for the crisis Africa was left in due to colonialism.

Sundberg, Gunlog. “Language Policy and Multilingual Identity in Sweden Through the Lens of Generation Y.” Scandinavian Studies 85.2 (2013): 205+. Biography in Context. Web. 23 Apr. 2016.

Sundberg’s article is on the multicultural, multilingual, population in today’s Europe, more specifically, Sweden. Twenty percent of Sweden’s population is rooted from other countries. The multitude of cultures and languages has left the Swedish government to worry about the potential loss of their native language. The country became much more divers after WWII, when Sweden experienced a large increase of immigration. The July 1, 2009 Protection Language Law, was passed to protect the Swedish language by requiring official state and local documents to be produced in Swedish along with submitting such documents in Swedish. Furthermore, universities require their students who submit papers written in English to also submit a copy in Swedish. This concern stems from potentially losing the Swedish languages to English. Government officials insisted that Sweden is still welcoming to all languages. It does encourage the diversity of its citizens and understand the benefits to learning an up and coming dominant language such as English. What they want is to preserve their language, rather than loose it to the next dominant language in the country. They are aware of the academic and the economic benefits to learning English but they strongly believe in preservation of their identity through their language.

English is an undying language. English is taught as a second language in many countries because the schools systems understand the value of learning English. Most countries understand that learning English as a second language increase one’s odds of success anywhere in the world this is because English continues to be the dominating. It is this way because the colonizing countries’ language was predominantly English. The establishment of school forced English upon the native people. There was an instilment in the native people that the colonizers culture and language were exceptional than their native tongues. I thought this article would prove useful in that a society could understand and value the use of being multilingual, while implementing steps to protect their native tongue. I believe that Sweden has found a balance of protecting their identity, but have the awareness of to not strip other cultures of their identity through their language. Sweden can be used as example for countries such as the United States to practice tolerance for other languages and see their value.

Thiongʼo, Ngũgĩ Wa. “Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature.” London: J. Currey, 1986. Print.

Decolonising the Mind is Ngũgĩ firsthand account of colonial and post-colonial impacts in Africa. He recounts the dismissal of his peoples’ language and culture during the British occupation of Africa. Ngũgĩ advocates in his book, the importance of language and culture to one’s identity. He cannot stress enough that language is the primary factor to the development of culture. One of his main arguments in preserving the dying languages of Africa is through writing African literature in Africa’s native tongues. He claims that there simply cannot be words or stories that can take any form of translation because any attempt to translate African stories would only diminish the content and meaning they carry in their native tongue.

I believe Decolonising the Mind is one of my primary source for my research proposal. This text ties into every source that I have chosen for my research. I would consider him the poster child of colonialism because Ngũgĩ attempts to hold on to the fragmented culture of Africa and move on to rebuild or restore its remains. His advocacy for the significance of language transcends all cultures and therefor is applicable to, or supporting of claims not in favor of colonialism or assimilation.

Usborne, Esther, and Roxane Sablonnière. “Understanding My Culture Means Understanding Myself: The Function Of Cultural Identity Clarity For Personal Identity Clarity And Personal Psychological Well-Being.” Journal For The Theory Of Social Behaviour 44.4 (2014): 436-458. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 30 April 2016.

In Usborne’s article about the development of one identity through the understanding of one culture she identifies key factors which contribute to the development of one’s personal identity. Theses factor are subject to the clear understanding in the values your group upholds. One’s understanding for cultural identity can be affected by the norms of the society that surround their group. Taylor (not the author of this article, but one of the contributing researchers) theorized that an individual had to understand the group they felt that they belong to, by knowing it’s norms, and characteristics to conclude what makes him or her personality unique. He adds that cultural identity informs a person of every aspect of their lives. The certainty of one’s identity creates for a higher self-esteem, psychological well-being, reduction of self-conceptual uncertainty, and the protection against existential anxiety.

Usborne’s article parallels Ngũgĩ’s statement about the influence that culture has on an individual. In his book, Decolonising the Mind, Ngũgĩ tells the reader about the importance of one’s cultural history through language. Culture through language is the form in which cultural identity is preserved. Language is the collective memories, thought processes, and cultural history which is constantly being added to generation after generation. Like the study suggest, language of our culture defines our values, “embodies moral, ethical and aesthetic values…” (14, Ngũgĩ). I too believe this to be true. Cultural identity instills the values that we should follow as individuals. The more familiar with these values we become the less we waver from our own values.

Woods, Eric Taylor, and Mira Debs. “Towards A Cultural Sociology Of Nations And Nationalism.” Nations & Nationalism 19.4 (2013): 607-614. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 May 2016.

This article proposes elements that construct the identity of a culture. The writers have suggested that the construction of identity is influenced by the dialectical processes between the elite and the masses. Some examples of this is ethnosybolist based and carried through the practice of genealogy; moral innovators are artist who see a threat to the nation and act to regenerate trends through the rediscovery of cultural characteristics, and elite influencing politics. Researchers also suggest that events such as war, revolution, immigration, exile and genocide also define a cultures identity. Civil sphere are groups that act on identifying what is civil and what is uncivil, often leaving certain people or groups out of their categories. The final suggested element in creating national and cultural identity is the theory of iconicity. The theory pays close attention to material objects that are turned into icons. These icons then become symbols for the nations/ cultures they identify. The researchers note that these theories are subject to time and place.

This article exemplifies the numerous possibilities for that contribute to cultural and national identity. I believe that any given theory is a possibility for identity. Any given event in that nation’s history must be taken into account. I believe that this is proof against Huntington’s claim the that civilization is not a stagnant entity. It also supports my proposal that cultures are impactful to each other histories.

Wood, Peter. “Diversity In America.” Society 40.4 (2003): 60-67. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2016.

Wood begins by dissecting a phrase that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. used so often: “single garment of destiny”. Wood seemed to disagree with Dr. King when he suggested the we are all linked to one singles fabric of destiny. He claims that Dr. King never took into account the individualist, outcasts, whole groups that chose to go their separate ways and recreated his premise that we are all part of “an inescapable network of mutuality”. Wood then asks how much a free country could contain diversity without tearing itself apart. He suggests that this concept is a struggle for the United States even today. Diversity is in every aspect of our live from art, to business, to the everyday choices we make. Wood emphases is that regardless of the metaphorical fabric we are tied into, ultimately every American is responsible for what we become. When he jumps back into the subject of diversity, he argues that diversity is a front for prejudice. He believes that the government does not promote national unity, but instead allows for the privilege of the ethnic and other forms of separation. Wood claims that he is an opponent of diversity because of the movement to diversify has disappointed him. It has failed in the way of its many compromises and the continued segregation of cultural identity.

Even though I do not entirely agree with Wood’s views on diversity, I knew that I wanted to incorporate as many opposing thoughts as possible. This opposing thought is absurd at first glance but it then becomes clear that he like Steele, share the same sentiments of being cheated by the system. It is disheartening to recognize the inconsistencies of a nation that prides itself on its values, but does not practice them. Overall, this article ties back into the theme of a system that needs to better itself for its people.

Yosso, Tara J. “Critical Race Counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano Educational Pipeline.” New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Yosso’s Critical Race Counterstories is a documentation on the Chicano/Chicana experience in American education system. She claims Chicano/Chicana students are at a disadvantage because of the culture and language barrier. In comparison to their English speaking peers, this group is considered the minority. She claims the schools that are predominantly dominantly Spanish speaking do not receive enough funding. In addition, the students are treated in ways that education is not made a priority for them by the school. For example, Latino students are taken out of class during a lesson to go prep lunches for their peers. Her argument is that the schools do not value a foreign language as a tool for success. Rather, the education system see language as something the hinder progress and therefore must be removed. There is a common misconception that students of non-English speaking parents are not interested or involved in their children education. Yosso’s claims, whether they are exaggerated or not, carry tone a tone of self-victimization.

Yosso’s text is a reliable source for my research paper because it expresses the problem of the education system in the United States. Chicano/Chicanas are not the only minority group that suffer neglect in the education. All non-white minorities face a challenge. I think there are issues that she presents that parallel experiences of other minorities, which is why I want to use her text as an example. I believe that solutions she creates to incorporated and value Spanish in her text are practical and could be applied to better this groups experience in education. Her solutions are grounded in the understanding of principles that value cultural identity and language.